2 edition of Investigating modality-specific age-related inhibitory deficits. found in the catalog.
Investigating modality-specific age-related inhibitory deficits.
Written in English
The filtering and organization of incoming information is facilitated through the process of inhibition. Subjective questionnaires indicate that older adults have great difficulty in inhibiting irrelevant auditory information in everyday situations. However, recent experimental data (e.g. Murphy, McDowd & Wilcox, 1999) have failed to find age age-related deficits in auditory inhibition. The current study examined age differences in inhibitory abilities in a visual and auditory variant of the Flanker Task (Eriksen & Eriksen, 1974). The precedence effect was employed to create perceived spatial separation between the target and distractors in the auditory modality. In both modalities all subjects had difficulty inhibiting the flankers, and in the visual modality this effect was larger for the older participants. An added working memory component differentially affected the two age groups, possibly due to compensatory strategies employed by the younger participants. These results serve to inform research into possible modality-specific inhibitory mechanisms.
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Cognitive function appears to peak around age 20 and diminish steadily over the remaining years of life. 1,2 With life expectancies increasing dramatically in the last century, cognitive decline and dementia have become major contributors to disability and mortality. 3,4 Aging is associated with gradual changes in the brain that slow and reduce its function. A major view in cognitive psychology presumes the existence of limits on mental capacity, limits that vary with circumstances and task demands and that largely determine the performance of individuals. The Daneman and Carpenter measure of working memory is thought to give a snapshot of capacity by assessing an individual's ability to actively maintain important information while also engaging.
It has recently been postulated that deficits in inhibitory functioning may account for age-related performance decrements exhibited in a variety of cognitive tasks (Hasher and Zacks ; Hasher et al. ; Zacks and Hasher ). This view maintains that inhibitory mechanisms become inefficient with age, causing a disruption to working memory. The researchers believe that age-related inhibitory deficits are due to reduced functioning of GABA neurotransmitters in the brain, which are thought to mediate inhibition. However, more research.
an inhibitory mechanism recruited to resolve interference among competing items. According to the inhibition-deficit hypothesis, older people experience a specific decline in inhibitory function and thus should show reduced re-trieval-induced forgetting. However, the results of the two experiments reported here show the same amount of re-. When acoustic information is presented in adverse and challenging environments (i.e., noise, reverb, poor signal-to-noise ratio etc) age-related cognitive impairment may contribute to difficulties with speech processing. Among the many age-related cognitive impairments, inhibition (the ability to ignore or inhibit secondary information) was addressed by Sommers ().
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The inhibitory deficit hypothesis, or inhibitory theory, is an attention‐based, general model of cognition that accounts for age differences in patterns of spared and impaired functioning in healthy older adults, patterns also seen in other populations such as those with attention deficits, those with depression, and individuals who are out of phase with their circadian by: 2.
Correspondingly, evidence for age-related inhibitory deficits have been observed in some studies, but not in others, depending on the type of inhibition under investigation (see Maylor et al.,for examples).
Furthermore, even a seemingly unitary inhibitory process like the suppression of a motor response might show divergent patterns of Cited by: 8. In order to test if the inhibitory effect cannot be explained by the semantic deficits frequently observed in the disease (for a review, see Garrard et al., ), correlations were computed between performance in the different conditions of the flanker task and performance on the designation task “Pyramid and Palm Tree test” (Howard and Cited by: However, none of these studies have been able to show age-related effects, and so an intriguing challenge for the inhibitory deficit hypothesis was born.
Filling in the Blanks: Behavioral Studies Inspired by this challenge, we performed a systematic literature review on the role of sensory modality in age-related distractibility (Guerreiro et Cited by: These age-related changes are thought to reflect deficits in engaging specific inhibitory control, and reduced processing speed, respectively (Anguera and Gazzaley, ).
In addition, age-related. Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with cognitive deficits, yet little is known about associations between cognition, vascular risk (VR), and age in this population. This study investigated whether BD patients with VR demonstrate stronger apparent age-related decline in inhibitory performance and processing speed (PS).
Oosterlaan, Logan, and Sergeant () Investigating modality-specific age-related inhibitory deficits. book a meta-analysis of eight studies investigating performance on the Stop-Signal task (Logan, ), a measure of behavioral inhibition. The authors concluded that, relative to controls, the ADHD groups showed poor response inhibition, which was associated with a slow inhibitory process.
1. Introduction. According to one of the most influential theories of cognitive aging, advancing age is accompanied by inhibitory decline (Hasher & Zacks, ), such that older adults have – among other inhibitory deficits – a reduced ability to ignore distracting stimuli (Lustig, Hasher, & Zacks, ).Evidence for this theory is based on experimental paradigms in which participants.
It has recently been postulated that deficits in inhibitory functioning may account for age-related performance decrements exhibited in a variety of cognitive tasks (Hasher & Zacks, ; Hasher et al., ; Zacks & Hasher, ).
This view maintains that inhibitory mechanisms become inefficient with age, causing a disruption to working memory. The age-related enhancement of the auditory N1 and P2 peaks, as well as the diminution of the N2, have been interpreted in terms of declining prefrontal gating (Amenedo and Díaz, a, Anderer et al.,Bertoli and Probst,Friedman et al., ).However, it is unclear why some electrophysiological indices of stimulus processing would be enhanced (N1, P2), while others.
Age-related inhibitory effects were investigated during spatial memory performance. In Experiment 1, 15 young (M = 20 years) and 16 old adults (M = 70 years) completed two spatial tasks (i.e., Block Suppression Test, Corsi Block Tapping Test) that differed in need for inhibitory processing.
Accuracy differences within each task revealed age-related differences in spatial working memory and. The purpose of the study was to empirically demonstrate a modality-specific loss of inhibitory control in processing audio-visual information with ageing.
A group of 30 young adults (mean age =Standar Desviation (SD) = ) and 22 older adults (mean age =SD = ) performed the audio-visual contour identification task (AV-CIT). INTRODUCTION. Deficits in cognitive processes necessary for organization, inhibition, sustained attention, and planning and executing goal-directed tasks, often referred to as executive functions, are a known cognitive comorbidity in children with epilepsy.
1–3 Executive function impairments can antedate seizures, 4 persist during disease remission, 5 predict lower quality of life, 6 and. ), according to which age-related inhibitory deficits lead to widespread impairments, such as a reduced ability to ignore con- current distraction, a reduced ability to delete previously relevant.
The model is supported by functional neuroimaging and other evidence in the domains of episodic memory, semantic memory, working memory, perception, and inhibitory control. Age-related. If a portion of the apparent inhibitory deficit exhibited by older adults were in fact due to age-related declines in vision, we would expect that any manipulation that increased the distinctiveness between the target text and the interfering text should reduce the magnitude of the apparent inhibitory deficit.
Age-Related Deficits in Low-Level Inhibitory Motor Control Friederike Schlaghecken, Kulbir S. Birak, and Elizabeth A. Maylor University of Warwick Inhibitory control functions in old age were investigated with the masked prime paradigm in which participants executed speeded manual choice responses to simple visual targets.
These were preceded. The notion that selective attention is compromised in older adults as a result of impaired inhibitory control is well established. Yet it is primarily based on empirical findings covering the visual modality.
Auditory and especially, cross-modal selective attention are remarkably underexposed in the literature on aging. In the past 5 years, we have attempted to fill these voids by. These findings suggest the joint work of the two mechanisms proposed to explain age-related naming difficulties, i.e., the inhibitory deficit and the transmission deficit hypothesis.
cedural details rather than age-related inhibitory deficits. More-over, the result was possibly affected by floor effects, as the low recall level of the older adults made it numerically impossible for them to show the same amount of forgetting as the younger adults (see the General Discussion section, below, for details).
Normal aging is associated with deficits in working memory processes. However, the majority of research has focused on storage or inhibitory processes.
We currently conclude that: (1) age-related differences of selective attention are modality dependent; (2) age-related differences of selective attention are limited; and (3) it remains an open question whether modality-specific age differences in selective attention are due to impaired distractor inhibition, impaired target enhancement, or both.
This deficit in general response inhibition was also reflected in reduced N2 amplitudes in NoGo trials in smokers as compared to non-smokers. Previous studies on inhibitory control in smokers, which used behavioral paradigms, such as the Go/NoGo task generally yielded inconsistent results –.
The difficulty level of the task of the current.